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Evidence synthesis (i.e. a literature review) involves the integrating of available evidence to reach a justified conclusion. The most rigorous review methodology is called a systematic review, in which the aim is to synthesise all, or nearly all, available evidence relating to a particular question. Other review methodologies also exist , and we would position the 2014 review as a ‘systematized review’, i.e. one which includes elements of a systematic review process while stopping short of being a full systematic review.

In this module, the word syndrome is used as a synonym for illness. single photon emission computed tomography A brain imaging process that measures the emission of single photons of a given energy from radioactive tracers in the human body. risk factorSomething that increases a person’s risk or susceptibility to harm. positron emission tomography An imaging technique for measuring brain function in living subjects by detecting the location and concentration of small amounts of radioactive chemicals.

phobiaAn intense fear of something that poses little or no actual danger. Examples of phobias include fear of closed-in places, heights, escalators, tunnels, highway driving, water, flying, dogs, and injuries involving blood. mental retardationA condition in which a person has an IQ that is below average and that affects an individual’s learning, behavior, and development.

Overall, it is not scientifically justified to make a quantitative statement about recovery rates. Those that have been made are definitely under-estimates, and quite possibly major under-estimates, of the true likelihood of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms recovery.

How should entitlement to disability-related benefits and other social resources be established? Welfare systems tend to be structured on a categorical basis, e.g. For example, Australia’s trial National Disability Insurance Scheme requires ‘permanent or likely to be permanent impairment or disability’ as an eligibility criteria. In 2014 a literature review was undertaken by the Centre for Mental Health at the University of Melbourne , to inform the policy.

  • From the entire population of people meeting criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia, the focus is on those with more severe problems who are in contact with mental health services.
  • ECT involves passing a low-voltage electric current through the brain.
  • The threshold for being ‘recovered’ was deliberately high.
  • electroconvulsive therapy A treatment for severe depression that is usually used only when people do not respond to medications and psychotherapy.
  • Despite the rather obvious observation that recovery takes time, and often a long time at that, studies of markedly different follow-up periods were treated as equal.

Recovery means different things to different people, although there are aspects that many people share. The outcomes are likely to be mitigated by many other factors such as access to quality treatment and supports.

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ventricleOne of the cavities or spaces in the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. syndromeA group of symptoms or signs that are characteristic of a disease.

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maniaFeelings of intense mental and physical hyperactivity, elevated mood, and agitation. magnetic resonance imaging An imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the structure of the brain. hypothalamusThe part of the brain that controls several body functions, including feeding, breathing, drinking, temperature, and the release of many hormones.